The general warning signs of skin cancer include:
- Any changes in size, colour, shape, or texture of a mole or other skin growth
- An open or inflamed skin wound that won't heal
Melanoma, the most dangerous type of skin cancer, does not necessarily appear on body parts that have been exposed to the sun. It may appear as:
- A change in an existing mole
- A small, dark, multicoloured spot with jagged borders (either elevated or flat) that may bleed and form a scab
- A clump of shiny, firm, dark bumps
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) may appear on sun-exposed skin as:
- A flesh-coloured round or oval lump which may develop into an ulcer that bleeds and fails to heal
- A smooth red spot pierced in the centre
- A reddish, brown, or bluish-black patch of skin
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) may appear on sun-exposed skin as:
- A firm, red bump that grows gradually and may be scaly
- A flat spot that becomes a bleeding sore that won't heal
Up to 90% of skin cancer is caused by too much sun exposure. Normally, after sun exposure, the skin's normal repair system causes the damaged cells to stop reproducing, die and flake off the skin (this is why the skin peels after sunburn). If this mechanism is impaired, and the injured cells continue to multiply, the skin becomes more vulnerable to further damage by the sun.
BCC and SCC have been linked to chronic sun exposure, and tend to occur in areas such as the face that have been repeatedly exposed to the sun.
Even though they do not always occur on parts of the body that have been exposed to the sun, melanomas are linked to excessive sunbathing that causes your skin to be scorched and blistered. It is reported that one blistering sunburn episode during childhood can double a person's risk for developing melanoma later in life.
The people most vulnerable to melanoma are -
- fair-skinned people
- blue-eyed blondes
- people with pigment disorders (e.g. albinos)
- people with many freckles or moles
- workers exposed to substances such as coal tar, radium, insecticides and other carcinogens
It is when the melanoma is undetected and spreads to other organs that it poses the greatest problem.
Antioxidant nutrients such as vitamin A (betacarotene), vitamin C, and vitamin E can help reduce the risk of cell damage, especially when taken in conjunction with the minerals zinc and selenium
Essential fatty acids, such as those found in Evening Primrose and Fish Oils, are also essential for the health of the skin
Life Style Factors
Enjoy a well-balanced diet, rich in antioxidants - eat plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables. Ensure you are eating foods with a variety of colours in order to be getting a wide range of nutrients. Include red, orange and yellow fruits and vegetables and green leafy vegetables in your diet, every day.
Avoid sunburn and over-exposure to the sun, and be particularly careful to "slip, slop, slap" with your children. Avoid sun exposure during the hottest part of the day, around lunchtime - 11 a.m. to 3 p.m.
Wear clothes that cover your exposed body parts and offer UV protection.
Do regular self-examinations and report any suspicious looking marks or skin lesions to your healthcare professional at once. Ask your GP to also do a full body check every 6-12 months.
Assist your body's healing processes by taking an antioxidant supplement for several days after being sunburnt. If you are a regular sun-bather, consider taking an antioxidant supplement on an ongoing basis.
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